x

هدف البحث

بحث في العناوين

بحث في المحتوى

بحث في اسماء الكتب

بحث في اسماء المؤلفين

اختر القسم

القرآن الكريم
الفقه واصوله
العقائد الاسلامية
سيرة الرسول وآله
علم الرجال والحديث
الأخلاق والأدعية
اللغة العربية وعلومها
الأدب العربي
الأسرة والمجتمع
التاريخ
الجغرافية
الادارة والاقتصاد
القانون
الزراعة
علم الفيزياء
علم الكيمياء
علم الأحياء
الرياضيات
الهندسة المدنية
الأعلام
اللغة الأنكليزية

موافق

Grammar

Tenses

Present

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous

Past

Past Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Simple

Future

Future Simple

Future Continuous

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

Passive and Active

Parts Of Speech

Nouns

Countable and uncountable nouns

Verbal nouns

Singular and Plural nouns

Proper nouns

Nouns gender

Nouns definition

Concrete nouns

Abstract nouns

Common nouns

Collective nouns

Definition Of Nouns

Verbs

Stative and dynamic verbs

Finite and nonfinite verbs

To be verbs

Transitive and intransitive verbs

Auxiliary verbs

Modal verbs

Regular and irregular verbs

Action verbs

Adverbs

Relative adverbs

Interrogative adverbs

Adverbs of time

Adverbs of place

Adverbs of reason

Adverbs of quantity

Adverbs of manner

Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of affirmation

Adjectives

Quantitative adjective

Proper adjective

Possessive adjective

Numeral adjective

Interrogative adjective

Distributive adjective

Descriptive adjective

Demonstrative adjective

Pronouns

Subject pronoun

Relative pronoun

Reflexive pronoun

Reciprocal pronoun

Possessive pronoun

Personal pronoun

Interrogative pronoun

Indefinite pronoun

Emphatic pronoun

Distributive pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun

Pre Position

Preposition by function

Time preposition

Reason preposition

Possession preposition

Place preposition

Phrases preposition

Origin preposition

Measure preposition

Direction preposition

Contrast preposition

Agent preposition

Preposition by construction

Simple preposition

Phrase preposition

Double preposition

Compound preposition

Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunction

Correlative conjunction

Coordinating conjunction

Conjunctive adverbs

Interjections

Express calling interjection

Grammar Rules

Preference

Requests and offers

wishes

Be used to

Some and any

Could have done

Describing people

Giving advices

Possession

Comparative and superlative

Giving Reason

Making Suggestions

Apologizing

Forming questions

Since and for

Directions

Obligation

Adverbials

invitation

Articles

Imaginary condition

Zero conditional

First conditional

Second conditional

Third conditional

Reported speech

Linguistics

Phonetics

Phonology

Semantics

Pragmatics

Linguistics fields

Syntax

Morphology

Semantics

pragmatics

History

Writing

Grammar

literature

Reading Comprehension

Elementary

Intermediate

Advanced

English Language : Linguistics : Morphology :

A puzzle: disentangling lexemes, word forms and lexical items

المؤلف:  Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy

المصدر:  An Introduction To English Morphology

الجزء والصفحة:  114-10

2024-02-06

493

A puzzle: disentangling lexemes, word forms and lexical items

I have set out to distinguish and elucidate different senses of the word ‘word’, and to show how they apply in English. The outcome is something of a paradox. Words as basic units of syntactic organization (the building bricks out of which phrases and sentences are composed) do not coincide exactly with words as items listed in dictionaries. Indeed, there are mismatches in both directions, there are items that need listing but are not words in the grammatical sense, and there are words in the grammatical sense whose meaning and behavior are so reliably predictable that they do not need listing. There is yet a third sense of ‘word’, in that items that are words in the grammatical sense (lexemes) may have more than one form, depending on the syntactic context. Yet the items identified by the three criteria resemble each other sufficiently closely so that, in everyday non-technical talk about language, we do not even notice the discrepancies. Why should this be so? Is it so in all languages, or is English peculiar?

 

These are large questions. On the other hand, given that they arise so naturally out of issues addressed in an introductory text such as this, it is natural to expect that there should be some general consensus among linguistic scholars about how they should be answered. Yet there is no such consensus – something that, as a linguist, I am ashamed to admit. This reflects the meagreness of the research effort that has been devoted to morphology, the lexicon and lexical semantics over the last fifty years, by comparison with the huge intellectual resources devoted to syntax and phonology. So, for want of a consensus and of concerted research, the best that I can offer by way of a reply is speculation – albeit speculation informed by research in inflectional morphology.